Web-centric Computing

Some Example Code

Text Buttons made with CSS

Screen Shots

Here are samples of how four common graphical browsers (and two uncommon ones) display the menu. The four common browsers are: Mozilla, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Netscape. The uncommon browsers are Konqueror and WebTV.

After the screenshots are some questions (and possible answers) for you to think about.

The longdesc attribute of the img elements has detailed descriptions of the images. You can also read those longer descriptions by following the [D] links to the alternate version of this webpage.

Mozilla 1.0

the CSS example using Mozilla [D]

Internet Explorer 5

the CSS example using Internet Explorer [D]

Opera 5

the CSS example using Opera [D]

Netscape 4

the CSS example using Netscape version 4 [D]

Konqueror 2.2.1

the CSS example using Konqueror [D]


the CSS example using WebTV simulator [D]

The screen capture is from the WebTV simulator version 2.6 (from the developer.msntv.com website).

For another comparison of how well certain browsers support CSS see Eric Meyer's table (from webreview.com) which was last updated in January 2001.


Q: Which one of the above is the correct presentation?
A: Netscape 4, Konqueror, and WebTV are very different from what the author intended. Although some of the presentations are more like what the author intended, there is no single correct presentation because on the WWW authors cannot always know what software their webpages will be viewed with.
Q: What can WWW authors do to make their webpages appear more like they intended?
A: In computer science we are often more concerned with the content of the message and not the presentation. We don't want the presentation to be ugly or confusing but we usually care much more about the content. If the format of the presentation is very important then there are a few things we can do, including:
  1. realizing that not everyone will be able to view our content the way we want them too (for instance: people viewing the web on cell phones and non-human search engines) we concentrate on markup that should be presented in a reasonable manner even if the presentation details cannot be rendered.
  2. hope that users of browsers that do mangle CSS will deactivate the CSS use in those browsers.
  3. use CSS (or JavaScript, or both) to inform readers of the Browser Upgrade Campaign of The Web Standards Project with the hope that people will stop using those browsers.

10 October 2002
CS 4173 Prof.:
J. Blustein <jamie@cs.dal.ca>