Task decomposition approach
0. make tea 1. boil water 1.1 fill kettle 1.2 light stove 1.3 put kettle on stove 1.4 wait 1.5 turn off stove 2. empty pot 3. put leaves in pot 4. pour water 5. wait 6. pour tea Plan 0: do 1. if pot is full, then do 2 at the same time do 3-4-5 when tea is brewed, do 6 Plan 1: do 1.1-1.2-1.3-1.4 when water is boiling, do 1.5
Control program for SHAKEY, developed at Stanford Research Institute
Early planner - hierarchical plans, constructed bottom-up
HTA constructs plans top-down, but decomposes tasks in a similar way
Knowledge based approach
Psychology of Human Computer Interaction, Card, Moran and Newell, 1983
GOMS is based on the Model Human Processor:
GOMS is in fact a family of TA methods:
Natural goals may be related to device-independent goals.
Often defined by hardware.
Methods are used to accomplish goals and are composed of operators.
Mental operators allow sub-goals - hierarchical decomposition.
Describing methods is the focus of task analysis.
Selection rules are needed if there is more than one method for a goal.
Common approach is to convert a general goal in a specific context into a specific goal.
Natural GOMS Language - Kieras, 1988
David Kieras has written a guide to GOMS (and NGOMSL in particular) which is available at: <URL:ftp://ftp.eecs.umich.edu/people/kieras/Guide.ps>
Method for goal: make tea Step 1. Accomplish goal: boil water Step 2. Decide: If Verify that pot is full Then empty pot Step 3. put leaves in pot Step 4. pour water Step 5. Wait for tea to brew Step 6. pour tea Selection rule set for goal: boil water If kettle is electric Then Accomplish goal: boil-water-in-kettle Else Accomplish goal: boil-water-on-stove Return with goal accomplished Method for goal: boil-water-in-kettle Step 1. fill kettle Step 2. turn kettle on Step 3. Wait for water to boil Step 4. Return with goal accomplished Method for goal: boil-water-on-stove Step 1. fill kettle Step 2. light stove Step 3. put kettle on stove Step 4. Wait for water to boil Step 5. turn stove off Step 6. Return with goal accomplished
Common architecture in symbolic AI
Working memory contains facts. Production rules are matched against the contents of the WM. Those that match form the conflict set. The process of conflict resolution selects a rule from the conflict set which is then fired, adding new facts to the WM.
GOMS is partly based on earlier work with Production Rule Systems
The correspondence between PS concepts and GOMS concepts is straightforward:
Analyse the task of making a telephone call from a public telephone. Call payment may be in cash, or by credit card, phone card or reverse charges.
$Date: 1999-02-25 12:31:15+00 $